Editorial Style Guide: C

Cal Aggie Alumni Marching Band-uh!. The name of the band (abbreviation CAAMB), but the name of the Cal Aggie Alumni Association chapter is Cal Aggie Marching Band Alumni Chapter.

Cal Aggie Foundation. The former name of the UC Davis Foundation. Use UC Davis Foundation.

California. Lowercase all “state of” constructions: the state of California. See the government agencies and state entries in this style guide; also consult AP Stylebook’s “state,” “government” and “governmental bodies” entries.

campus. The Davis campus (not “main campus”) is the designation for UC Davis facilities and programs in Davis. The Sacramento campus is the designation for UC Davis facilities and programs located in the area around Stockton Boulevard and Broadway in Sacramento, including the UC Davis Medical Center and UC Davis School of Medicine. Lowercase campus in all instances: the Davis campus.

campus musical ensembles. Refer to campus performing musical groups as shown:

  • UC Davis Symphony Orchestra or, on second and subsequent reference, the symphony in lowercase;
  • University Chorus (or chorus on second reference);
  • University Chamber Singers (or chamber singers on second reference);
  • UC Davis Early Music Ensemble;
  • UC Davis Wind Ensemble;
  • Empyrean Ensemble (can be described as an ensemble performing new and contemporary music);
  • University Concert Band (the concert band on second reference);
  • UC Davis Baroque Ensemble;
  • UC Davis Jazz Band;
  • UC Davis Gospel Choir;
  • Cal Aggie Marching Band.

campuswide. When used as a suffix, wide is not usually hyphenated, per AP. (An exception to that rule is World Wide Web.)

captions. Full sentences generally are preferable to sentence fragments. Since a good picture is supposedly worth a thousand words, a caption should do more than reiterate what is obvious in the photo; a good caption should enhance and clarify that which is not immediately obvious in the photo. Depending upon the context, some “thumbnail” or “mug” shots may require no more than a “nameline”—simply the name of the individual or object shown. Use no period after a nameline. In all other instances, use a period to conclude all captions—even those written in headline style (as incomplete sentences).

TENSE. Since a photograph freezes a moment in time, present tense often works well in captions, particularly for actions that continue into the present. It is sometimes preferable, however, to write captions in past tense—for example, in writing about conditions that no longer exist. It is also preferable not to mix tenses within the same caption:

  • Scientists from UC Davis’ Department of Applied Science conduct fusion research using a laser at Livermore.
  • Faith Fitzgerald examines the knee of a patient with arthritis.
  • but: Chancellor Larry Vanderhoef met with students, parents and alumni at a reception in Fresno in September. (“Meets” would have caused confusion—last September or next September?)
  • The building was destroyed by fire a week after this photo was made.

ARTWORKS. For campus periodicals, citation of artworks in captions should include the name of the artist (see exception below), the name of the artwork in italics, the year it was made, its material(s), its size, the name of the collection to which it belongs and, if applicable, indication that the artwork has been cropped:

  • Robert Arneson, untitled, 1964, glazed ceramic, 13 x 11 x 11". Gift of Fay Nelson.
  • Detail of Mayonnaise, ca. 1975, oil on canvas, 20 x 18". From the collection of Matthew Scott Cook. [Note: this exception, which contains no artist’s name, would be used in a photo feature devoted exclusively to one artist.]
  • Ann Chamberlain, Identity, 1992, photograph collage, 28 x 30". Detail.
  • The Egghead Series: For release of images to the news media, full credit lines listed below should be included on the back of the photographs. Whenever images of the Eggheads are to be released to news media, please contact the director of the Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Authorized images have been produced and should be used.
    • Robert Arneson, American, 1930–1992, Bookhead, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, acrylic on bronze, Shields Library Plaza, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Commissioned by the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group with private funds (91.40). © UC Regents and Nelson Gallery; all rights reserved.
    • Robert Arneson, American, 1930–1992, Yin & Yang, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, acrylic on bronze, Fine Arts Complex Courtyard, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Commissioned by the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group with private funds (92.66). © UC Regents and Nelson Gallery; all rights reserved.
    • Robert Arneson, American, 1930–1992, See No Evil/Hear No Evil, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, acrylic on bronze, east of King Hall, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Commissioned by the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group with private funds (94.2). © UC Regents and Nelson Gallery; all rights reserved.
    • Robert Arneson, American, 1930–1992, Eye on Mrak (Fatal Laff), from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, acrylic on bronze, Mrak Hall Mall, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Commissioned by the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group with private funds (94.3). © UC Regents and Nelson Gallery; all rights reserved.
    • Robert Arneson, American, 1930–1992, Stargazer, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, acrylic on bronze, between North and South halls, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Commissioned by the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group with private funds (94.4). © UC Regents and Nelson Gallery; all rights reserved.
  • For campus publications that spotlight the Eggheads for other than news release purposes, the line “© Nelson Gallery” should appear alongside the images. The reduced credit lines listed below should be used inside the publication cover or in the appropriate location for recognition.
    • Robert Arneson, Bookhead, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection, © UC Regents.
    • Robert Arneson, Yin & Yang, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection, © UC Regents.
    • Robert Arneson, See No Evil/Hear No Evil, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection, © UC Regents.
    • Robert Arneson, Eye on Mrak (Fatal Laff), from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection, © UC Regents.
    • Robert Arneson, Stargazer, from The Egghead Series, 1991–92, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection, © UC Regents.
  • Other public art on campus: For releases of images to the news media, full credit lines listed below should be placed on the back of the photographs.
    • Kim Anno and Miranda Bergman, The Unfinished Dream, 1991, acrylic mural, Memorial Union South Courtyard, UC Davis. Commissioned by the Office of Student Affairs and the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group.
    • Deborah Butterfield, American, b. 1949, San Diego, California; untitled (horse), 1992, welded steel with found color, Buehler Alumni and Visitors Center, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Commissioned by the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group and purchased with funds from the Cal Aggie Alumni and Visitors Center Campaign. (92.67)
    • Tio Giambruni, American, 1925–1971; Bum, Bum, You’ve Been Here Before, 1967, cast aluminum and bronze, west of Art Building, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Gift of Helen, Kim and Mark Giambruni. (86.33)
    • Steve Gillman, American, b. 1945, Oakland, California; Stone Poem, 1986, granite, Silo Complex, UC Davis. Commissioned by the Office of Student Affairs and the Campus Art in Public Places Work Group.
    • Steve Gillman, American, b. 1945, Oakland, California; Time Line, 1986, white granite, University Arboretum, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Purchased with matching funds from the Office of the Chancellor, the Rene and Veronica di Rosa Foundation, Norman O. and Lois J. Jones, Maurine Morse Nelson, the Yolo County Arts Council, Edward M. Nagel and other private donors. (87.15)
    • Ralph Johnson, American, 1925–1994, Apollo, 1987–88, bronze with patina, unique cast, north of Wellman Hall, UC Davis, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection. Gift of the artist, with funds for the casting provided by the Office of the Chancellor. (88.3)
    • Lisa Reinertson, American, b. 1955, Washington, D.C.; Martin Luther King, Jr., 1987, ceramic, Martin Luther King Jr. Hall, lobby, UC Davis. Commissioned by the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Committee, School of Law.
  • For campus publications that spotlight campus public art for other than news release purposes, reduced credit lines listed below should be used inside the publication cover or in the appropriate location for recognition.
    • Kim Anno and Miranda Bergman, The Unfinished Dream, 1991.
    • Deborah Butterfield, untitled (horse), 1992, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection.
    • Tio Giambruni, Bum, Bum, You’ve Been Here Before, 1967, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection.
    • Steve Gillman, Stone Poem, 1986.
    • Steve Gillman, Time Line, 1986, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection.
    • Ralph Johnson, Apollo, 1987–88, Richard L. Nelson Gallery & The Fine Arts Collection.
    • Lisa Reinertson, Martin Luther King, Jr., 1987.

PAGE LOCATION. To cite location of a photo on a page, precede the appropriate caption with directions and separate the directions from the caption with a colon:

  • Above left: The alumni association honored.... For UC Davis Magazine, use the same typeface (italic) for the directions and the caption.

To cite location within a photo, follow examples below:

  • For rows: Team members are (top row, from left) Sleepy, Dopey, Happy; (middle row) Larry, Moe, Curly; (front row) John, Paul, George and Ringo.
  • For groups: Shown standing (from left) are Amy Agronis, Dateline UC Davis; Jan Conroy, Editorial Design; and Sylvia Wright, News Service. Seated are Paul Pfotenhauer, Patricia Bailey and Lisa Lapin, all from News Service.

CREDIT LINES. Credit lines for individual photographs and illustrations in UC Davis Magazine and Dateline UC Davis generally indicate photographer and campus unit or business name:

  • Neil Michel/Axiom
  • Debbie Aldridge/UC Davis

Other common forms:

  • Courtesy of Keith Williams
  • © AP/Wide World Photos

For a freestanding overall credit line covering all photos in a story:

  • Photography by Debbie Aldridge/UC Davis

Do not use a period to end a credit line.

car pool. Two words.

catalog, cataloged, cataloger, cataloging, catalogist. Not “catalogue.”

Chicano, Hispanic, Latino, Mexican American. These terms, which should be capitalized, have distinct meanings that depend, to a large extent, on the interpretations and preferences of individuals. But, according to AP Stylebook, the preferred term is Hispanic for those whose ethnic origin is a Spanish-speaking country. Latino is an acceptable alternative for Hispanics whom refer that term. When possible, use a more specific identification, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican or Mexican American. Avoid Chicano as a synonym for Mexican American. (Note Mexican American is not hyphenated, an exception to AP.)

Chinese names. Note that in China the family name is first (and usually short, three to six letters). So in China it’s Liu Kwang-Ching, but in America it’s Kwang-Ching Liu.

city, town names. For proper spellings and abbreviations, consult Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (selected cities and place names listed throughout the dictionary); the National Geographic Atlas of the World; the U.S. Postal Service Directory of Post Offices; geographical sections of other dictionaries; or atlases. In most cases, abbreviate “Saint” in the names of cities: St. Paul (see AP Stylebook’s “Saint” entry); exceptions: Saint John, New Brunswick; Sault Ste. Marie (see AP’s “cities and towns” and “city” entries). Do not capitalize “city” in “city of” constructions: the city of Davis.

class names. See “course titles.”

Class Notes. See “individuals” heading under names entry.

class year. Do not disclose a student’s class year standing without his or her permission. Instead, refer to a student only as an undergraduate (or graduate student or doctoral student).

Coffee House. The proper name of the Memorial Union establishment is spelled with two words. In other references, coffeehouse is one word.

college and university names. See the “college and university names” heading under the names entry.

colon. See “colon” heading under punctuation entry.

comma. See punctuation entry.

commencement. Use lowercase.

composition titles. Capitalize first and last words and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Lowercase articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, or, for, nor, but) and prepositions (of, to) unless they form the first or last words of a title, per Chicago. (See Chicago 8.167 for other exceptions.) Retain the spelling of the original title and add punctuation only if necessary for understanding. See Chicago 8.164–8.208.

ARTWORKS. Titles of paintings, drawings, statues and other works of art should be set in italics for campus periodicals and set in roman type within quotes for news releases. Also see the “artworks” heading under the captions entry.

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. For campus periodicals, set titles and subtitles of published books, pamphlets, periodicals, newspapers, newsletters and sections of newspapers published separately in italics: The New York Times Book Review. For news releases, set names of newspapers, magazines and other periodicals in roman type without quotations, but set titles of books and pamphlets in roman type within quotation marks. (See separate entries for magazine names and newspaper names.) For campus periodicals as well as news releases, set titles of newspaper or periodical articles, titles of book chapters, and titles of short stories and essays in roman type and enclose in quotation marks. Omit the initial article “A” or “The” in titles of books in awkward constructions—for example, in referring to The Old Curiosity Shop by Dickens, it is permissible to write Dickens’ Old Curiosity Shop or that dreadful Old Curiosity Shop character, Quilp. Use capitalization and roman type for the Bible and its versions, editions, books and sections: the Bible, Holy Bible, King James Version, Psalms, Old Testament.

COMPUTER GAMES. Italicize in periodicals and enclose in quote marks in news releases. Other software titles should not be italicized or enclosed in quote marks.

  • WordPerfect
  • Tomb Raiders or “Tomb Raiders”

DANCE. Treat titles of ballets and other dance compositions according to the guidelines governing poems and plays; for periodicals, long works should be italicized, and short works should be set in roman type within quotation marks. For news releases, use roman type within quotations in all instances.

EXHIBITIONS. Capitalize and use roman (not italic) type, without quotation marks: the exhibition Jan Conroy: Recent Works will be on view.... See Chicago 8.208.

LECTURE TITLES. Set in roman type within quotes (Chicago 8.93): His talk was titled “Style Guides—Contribution or Curse?” Also see the series entry.

MOTION PICTURES. For campus periodicals, use italics; for news releases, use roman type enclosed in quotes.

MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS. Classical music works, including operas, oratorios and other long compositions, that are identified by generic titles—that is, by the name of their musical form (symphony, concerto, fantasia, etc.) plus a number or key or both—should be set in roman type without quotations in publications and in news releases. However, classical works that have descriptive titles (see the William Tell example below) should be set in italics in campus publications and in roman type within quotations in news releases. Popular names of musical works should be set in roman type within quotation marks (see the Beethoven “Serenade” example below). Capitalize the adjectives “Major” and “Minor.” Use roman type within quotes for titles of songs and short compositions in campus periodicals and in news releases. Examples—first, for periodicals and then, in brackets, for news releases:

  • Don Giovanni [“Don Giovanni” in news releases]
  • Bach: Das Wohltemperierte Clavier [“Das...Clavier” in news releases]
  • Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier [“The Well...Clavier” in news releases]
  • Debussy’s La Mer [Debussy’s “La Mer” in news releases]
  • William Tell Overture [“William Tell” Overture in news releases]
  • Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 (1807–08)
  • Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony
  • Beethoven: Trio in D, op. 8 (“Serenade”)
  • Piano Sonata No. 3 in F Minor, op. 14
  • Mahler’s Symphony No. 5 in C-sharp Minor
  • Fantasy in C Minor
  • Tchaikovsky’s Sextet for Strings (“Souvenir of Florence”)
  • Sonata in C Major (Unfinished)
  • A-Major Sonata (compound adjective requires the hyphen)
  • Schumann: Variations for Piano, op. 9
  • “Wohin” from Die schone Mullerin [Die . . . Mullerin in news releases]
  • “Louie, Louie”
  • “Nights in White Satin” from the album Days of Future Passed [“Days of Future Passed” in news releases]

It is this style guide’s recommendation to use the abbreviations op. (opus; plural opp.) and No. (number; plural Nos.); No. and Nos. should be capitalized. Always capitalize abbreviations designating a catalog of a composer’s works—K. for Kochel’s catalog of Mozart, D. for Deutsch’s catalog of Schubert, J. for Jahn’s catalog of Weber, Hob. for Hoboken’s catalog of Haydn, and BWV (without periods) for Bach Werke Verzeichnis, Schmieder’s catalog of the works of Bach:

  • Fantasy in C Minor, K. 475
  • Baryton Trio No. 71 in A Major, Hob. XI:71
  • Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565

POEMS AND PLAYS. In campus periodicals, titles of plays, long poems and collections of poems are italicized, and titles of short poems are set in roman type within quotes. In news releases, use roman type within quotation marks for all poems, regardless of length. Words denoting parts of poems and plays should be set lowercase in roman type with arabic figures (canto 2, stanza 4; act 3, scene 5).

TELEVISION PROGRAMS. For campus periodicals, use italics; for news releases, use roman type enclosed in quotes: Gilligan’s Island or “Gilligan’s Island.”

UNPUBLISHED WORKS. Titles of dissertations and theses, manuscripts in collections, lectures and papers read at seminars should be set in roman type within quotes: “Contemporary Cultural Tastes of Residents of Suburban Lincoln, Nebraska.”

WEBSITES. If titled, websites should be set in roman, headline style, without quotation marks.

comprise. Comprise means to contain, to include all or embrace, so never say “comprised of.” See AP’s “compose, comprise, constitute” entry.

computer games. See composition titles entry.

computer terms. See Chicago 7.76–7.81 and individual entries in this style guide and AP Stylebook. See also the “Internet Guide” in the most recent addition of the AP Stylebook.

conference titles. Full official names of conferences should be capitalized:

  • 1990 International Conference on Family Planning Programs
  • Republican National Convention ( the national convention or the convention on second and subsequent references)

Don’t treat such appendages as “annual meeting” as part of titles; lowercase them:

  • 39th annual American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting

A title given to a conference is enclosed in quotation marks:

  • “Systematic Investigation of the Effects of Caffeine in Stimulating Intellectual Discourse Among Philosophers,” a symposium held at UC Davis in October

Titles of lectures and papers that are read at symposia or conferences should be set in roman type within quotations. (See the “Unpublished Works” heading under the composition titles entry.)

convince, persuade. With “convince,” use “that” or “of”; with “persuade,” use “to”: She is convinced that he is a bozo. His work convinced her of his vapidity. She persuaded him to consider another line of work.

Cooperative Extension. The university’s Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources has two major units: the Agricultural Experiment Station, a research arm, and Cooperative Extension, the educational arm. Cooperative Extension works in partnership with county, state and federal government agencies in developing practical applications of research findings and in identifying farming problems requiring investigation by agricultural scientists. Cooperative Extension specialists are stationed on the Davis, Berkeley and Riverside campuses; Cooperative Extension advisors (farm advisors and home advisors) are stationed in local offices throughout the state. Specialists are adjuncts of academic departments, with expertise in particular subject areas: He is a Cooperative Extension specialist in vegetable crops, in pesticide safety, in range and wildlife management, etc. Use the term Cooperative Extension on first reference; Extension alone (capitalized) is acceptable on subsequent references (unless confusion with University Extension might result). Treat “specialist” and “advisor” (note “or” spelling) as formal titles, thus capitalizing them before the name of an individual: Cooperative Extension Farm Advisor Fred Schrader; use lowercase following a name: Fred Schrader, Cooperative Extension farm advisor. [Note: Do not refer to Co-operative Extension as the Agricultural Extension Service, its former name that was abandoned in 1974.]

copyright. It’s not necessary to include ©, ® or ™ symbols in journalistic publications. (One exception: © is used with reproductions of photos of the Eggheads.) See trademarks.

councilmember. Preferable to AP’s councilman and councilwoman.

course titles. Use roman (standard) type, capitalized, within quotation marks: “Introduction to Astrophysics.”

courtesy titles. See “individuals” heading under names entry.